2.6. Elements of security systems of the car
The cars considered in the present manual are equipped a complex of the means intended for protection of the driver and passengers in case of the road accident (RA). Here the seats equipped with head restraints, seat belts, emergency automatic natyazhitel of belts and a safety cushion of the driver and the forward passenger enter.
Some components of a security system, being an integral part of a design of the car, do not require additional attention from the owner of the vehicle. The strong steel frame forming a design of a cabin in which the salon is located belongs to their number; the forward and back zones of deformation absorbing energy of blow at collision and also devices of an automatic tension of seat belts (an additional complete set) which automatically carry out a tension of belts in case of blow.
For safety of the driver and passengers all seats of the car are equipped with seat belts.
In the dashboard the special control lamp reminding to the driver and passengers about need to be fastened by seat belts is built in.
Safety cushions of the driver and passenger
The system of additional safety of SRS better known as safety cushions is included in a basic equipment of some models. The system is developed for protection of the driver and the forward passenger against heading or a breast about a steering wheel or the dashboard in case of strong front blow.
Principle of action of forward safety cushions
Also side safety cushions providing protection of the driver and forward passenger at side blows can be included in the additional package
Principle of action of side safety cushions
The owner of the car equipped with the SRS system is obliged to know the most important points about a design and the principle of action of elements of system:
- Existence of safety cushions cannot excuse neglect of use of seat belts at all. SRS has to be used only together with belts and other means of passive safety;
- Forward safety cushions do not provide protection in case of side blow, and also at blow behind. Besides, operation of modules happens only at the directed blows of high intensity, i.e. the system does not provide protection at weak head-on collisions;
- Side safety is not ensured by protection in case of head-on collision and blow behind, besides, they work also only at excess by energy of side blow of some threshold value that not always takes place at a car turning;
- Operation of a safety cushion can put a trauma.
Effectively to execute the protective function, the safety cushion has to be developed from the put state in working for very short time. Therefore a safety cushion, protecting the driver or the forward passenger from heavy mutilations, in some cases saving their life, can become the traumatizing reason, and sometimes and serious mutilations, up to a lethal outcome if the driver or the forward passenger were not properly fastened by seat belts or held emergency position on seats.
To reduce probability of traumatizing by a pillow, it is always necessary to be fastened by seat belts and to settle down on a driver's seat on the greatest possible removal from a steering wheel / dashboard.
Provision of seats and their backs
The design of seats of the car guarantees the maximum comfort to the person sitting in them, at the same time providing conditions of the most effective implementation of the functions with belts and safety cushions. Soft stuffing of pillows and backs provides additional protection sitting in emergencies.
The choice of provision of a seat also exerts impact on safety of the person sitting in it. For example, at excessive approach of a seat to a steering wheel or the dashboard the risk of the traumatizing sitting at operation of a safety cushion, and also risk of ejection through a windshield at head-on collision increases.
Increase in an inclination of a seatback will worsen fixing of a body a seat belt, - the more the back is rejected back, the probability of slipping of a body of the seat belt sitting under zone section at strong front blow is higher, and the heavier can be traumatized.
Record the provision of a front seat in the most remote (and at the same time convenient for implementation of driving) from a steering wheel or the dashboard situation, bring a back into vertical position.
Head restraints prevent traumatizing cervical department of a backbone and head at blow behind. The head restraint has to be adjusted on height so that its top cut was flush with the upper edge of the ear sitting.
Instructions for use means of passive safety of the driver and passengers
The instructions stated below acquaint the reader with ways of ensuring the maximum protection of all people who are in the car.
After the driver and all passengers took the places in salon, be convinced that all doors of the car are densely closed.
On some models the sound or light alarm system which working at leaky closing of one or several doors of the car is provided.
The driver sitting too close to the dashboard is exposed to the increased risk of traumatizing, up to receiving serious mutilations and a lethal outcome from blow about a steering wheel or at operation of a safety cushion in case of road accident.
In order to avoid risk of traumatizing, properly fasten a seat belt, bring a seatback into vertical position and densely nestle on it a back, having removed at this seat in the situation, most remote from a steering wheel, at the same time, certainly, the driver has to ensure the good review and a possibility of a convenient manipulation all governing bodies of the car. Make sure that the seat of the forward passenger is also most removed from the dashboard.
The correct position of the driver on a seat
Too close provision of seats of the driver and forward passenger to a steering wheel or the dashboard in case of road accident can lead to receiving serious injuries and even death!
The vast majority of drivers (even low growth) can remove most far a driver's seat from a steering wheel, freely reaching at the same time pedals. However if you are disturbed by too close provision of a driver's seat to a steering wheel, authors of the present manual recommend to the reader to pay attention to some types of the service equipment, - at company car repair shops it is possible to obtain exhaustive information on the matter.
Having convinced of correctness of provision of a seat, check reliability of its fixing. Instructions for adjustment of provision of front seats are provided in the Section Equipment of Salon.
Adjust an inclination of a back of a driver's seat, having brought it into the most convenient for your constitution, as close as possible to vertical situation, having left at the same time sufficient space between a thorax and a nave of a steering wheel in which the safety cushion is built in.
Too strong inclination of a seatback leads to the fact that the humeral section of a seat belt will not nestle on a thorax that in an essential measure reduces efficiency of its protective functions. The more the seatback is inclined back, the probability of slipping of the body sitting under lumbar section at strong front blow is higher and the heavier can be traumatized. Instructions for adjustment of seatbacks are provided in the Section Equipment of Salon.
Before a start of motion make sure that the provision of head restraints on each of seats conforms to necessary requirements, providing due protection of cervical department of the backbone and head sitting at blow behind. The head restraint has to be adjusted on height so that its central part was flush with a nape If it does not manage to achieve, the head restraint should be established in extreme top situation.
Correct adjustment of a head restraint
The wrong provision of head restraints reduces efficiency of their protective functions and increases risk of receiving serious injuries as a result of the road accident!
Instructions for adjustment of provision of head restraints are provided in the Section Equipment of Salon.
Latch a belt buckle bracket in the lock, then pull for a strap of humeral section up, checking reliability of fixing of a bracket in the lock. Make sure that the strap of a belt is not overwound, - the overwound belt in itself is dangerous.
As much as possible lower zone section of a belt, having placed it as low as possible on hips. Having pulled for humeral section, choose a weak point and try to achieve a dense prileganiye of a belt to a body. In case of need tighten a belt and achieve a dense prileganiye of its humeral section to a trunk. The strap has to pass through a thorax sitting on diagonal so that loading at blow fell generally on the strongest upper torso.
Negligence to use of seat belts is fraught with receiving severe injuries in case of the road accident!
The driver of the vehicle, having fastened by the seat belt, has to check that all passengers were also properly fastened.
The correct provision of zone section of a belt will provide the safest repayment of inertia of a body at accident, holding it for strong bones of a coxofemoral joint. If the strap passes through a shoulder joint of a hand, it is necessary to correct the provision of the top anchor fastening of a belt on a car rack
Top fastenings of seat belts
To adjust the provision of the top anchor of fastening of a belt, press the buttons of a clamp and shift fastening up or down the guide which is built in in a rack, trying to obtain the correct provision of humeral section of a belt concerning a neck. Fastening has four fixed situation.
Do not pass humeral section of a belt near at hand at all and do not get it for a back, - it can be fraught with the most serious consequences at accident!
Incorrectly functioning seat belt will not be able to provide appropriate protection of the driver/passenger in case of the road accident. In the absence of confidence in correctness of adjustments, charge to specialists of car repair shop of the company manufacturer of the car to carry out check of functioning of seat belts. Additional information on seat belts is provided in the Section Equipment of Salon.
Landing to a seat
After the driver and all passengers took the places in interior of the car, adjusted the provision of the seats and put on seat belts, they have to give the correct situation to the body, having densely nestled a back on a seatback and having firmly put legs on a floor of salon. Legs should not come off a floor up to a full stop of the car and switching off of the engine.
Violation of correctness of landing during the movement increases risk of getting injured as a result of road accident. So, if passengers sit having bent, lie, turn in the parties, bend forward or sideways, get on a seat with legs, the risk of receiving serious mutilations by them as a result of accident considerably increases.
Besides, the forward passengers holding the wrong position on seats can suffer serious injuries from the parts of internal finishing of salon breaking as a result of emergency blow, or from operation of a forward safety cushion.
If on the car equipped with side safety cushions the head of the forward passenger during the movement is inclined sideways and is in a zone of operation of a safety cushion, the risk of receiving by it extremely increases at accident of serious injuries and mutilations.
Try to observe the correct situation on a seat during all trip, holding a back densely pressed to a seatback and having put legs on a floor. Remember that vertical position of landing and competent use of seat belts increase efficiency of functioning of all elements of safety which equipped the car.
Recommendations for pregnant women
Safety of the pregnant woman is the best way of preservation of a fruit in case of road accident therefore at the movement on the car (as the driver or the passenger) the pregnant woman has to be fastened without fail by a seat belt, paying at the same time special attention to correctness of placement of its sections concerning the body.
When using belts of a diagonal and zone design it is necessary to remember that the zone section of a belt has to settle down as low as possible on hips and not to be imposed on a stomach at all.
The pregnant woman also has to hold vertical position on a seat. At the same time the front seat has to be most far removed from the dashboard that will allow in case of road accident or operation of a forward safety cushion to reduce risk of getting injured and mutilations not only for mother, but also for a fruit.
At each visit of the observing doctor, consult, whether you should drive the car.
Transportation of children
For safety of transportation of children of younger and middle age it is necessary to use special children's seats and means of fixing, detailed instructions for placement and to which installation to you will be offered in the place of acquisition of a product. In case of need address for consultations on company car repair shops.
Opel devices for transportation of children are without fail equipped with the transponders providing deactivation of safety cushions of passenger safety cushions at placement of adaptation on a front passenger seat.
It is forbidden to use the same seat belt for fastening of two people at the same time. In this case the belt will not perform the protective functions and in case of accident passengers can get severe injuries.
Do not attach any slips and other objects to straps of seat belts. Installation of extras or change of provision of fastening of humeral section can reduce efficiency of action of seat belts and increase probability of traumatizing at accident.
Have no firm or sharp objects between the body and a forward safety cushion.
Transportation of firm or sharp objects on a lap, or driving with a tube for smoking or other sharp objects in a mouth at accident can lead to receiving heavy to injuries.
For the purpose of prevention of risk of unauthorized operation of forward safety cushions try not to bring hands to the locations of their modules on the dashboard and a nave of a steering wheel
On the models equipped with side safety cushions do not fix firm objects on internal panels of forward doors and in close proximity to them.
Design features of seat belts
Diagonal and zone seat belt
Scheme of laying of a seat belt of a diagonal and zone design
To unfasten a belt, press the red button with the inscription PRESS which is located on the buckle lock case. At taking-up of a belt it is necessary to hold with a drum of the returnable device it for a buckle bracket. After an exit from the car check that the belt did not get to a doorway and was not clamped at a zakhlopyvaniye of the last.
Belts of a diagonal and zone design are equipped with the returnable device of inertial type which drum, automatically chooses a weak point of straps and constantly supports a small preliminary tension of the belt pressed to a body. Inertial belts practically do not constrain movements of the person fastened by them and allow it to change a pose to a seat easily. At road accident or sharp braking of the car the fixing mechanism of the returnable device is put in action. The drum blocks a belt, excepting a possibility of the dangerous movement sitting.
Automatic emergency natyazhitel of seat belts
On some models for the purpose of ensuring additional protection of the driver and the forward passenger seat belts of front seats are supplied with the devices, at operation providing an automatic tension of belts that provides additional guarantees of an exception of dangerous movements of the driver and forward passenger at head-on collision.
Modules of emergency automatic natyazhitel
Operation of automatic emergency natyazhitel happens at the directed overloads arising during strong head-on collision. Emission of forward safety cushions is at the same time made.
At operation of a natyazhitel the seat belt remains in the tense situation until the bracket of its buckle is not released from the lock of the last.
Emergency natyazhitel of seat belts are devices of single use and after operation are subject to replacement.
Operation of a control lamp of systems of additional safety (SRS) warns the driver about possible malfunctions in devices of emergency natyazhitel of belts (see the Section Dashboard).
Principles of functioning of elements of system of additional safety (SRS)
Enter number of the devices and components forming system of additional safety (SRS):
- Two forward safety cushions. The module of a driver's safety cushion is placed in a nave of a steering wheel. The safety cushion of the forward passenger is placed in a special cavity in the right part of the dashboard of the car. The locations of both modules are marked with the precautionary inscriptions "AIRBAG";
Module of a driver's safety cushion
- The side safety cushions (at the corresponding complete set) which are built in in external surfaces of backs of front seats;
Marking on a cover of the module of a side safety cushion
- The sensors of the directed overloads working at strong blows of the corresponding direction;
- Electronic system of self-diagnostics which at the included ignition provides continuous testing of sensors of overloads, the control unit, gas generators of safety cushions and a connecting electrical wiring of the corresponding chains;
- Devices of an automatic emergency tension of seat belts of front seats;
- The control lamp of refusals of SRS which is built in in the dashboard;
- The spare independent power supply intended for duplication of the main power supply system in case of its exit out of operation at collision of the car.
Forward safety cushions
Sensors of the directed overloads react to excess of some extreme value which can arise at strong head-on collision. On a signal of sensors the control unit includes gas generators of safety cushions, causing their instant filling.
Epyura of the directions of the blows leading to operation of sensors of the directed overloads of forward safety cushions
During collision the seat belt holds the lower part of the trunk sitting from shift. Forward safety cushions help to prevent traumatizing the driver and forward passenger as a result of blow by their head and a thorax about a steering wheel or the dashboard.
As signals on operation of both safety cushions arrive from the same sensors, both pillows work at the same time. However the probability of initiation of only one of pillows is not excluded if the size of the directed overloads which arose at collision was on the verge of the range of operation of gas generators. In this case seat belts provide rather reliable protection of the driver and forward passenger while the effect of operation of a safety cushion is minimum.
Right after operation and performance by pillows of the functions gas from them is produced that allows the driver to keep visibility and to manipulate freely all governing bodies of the car.
The full duration of process takes with sensors of overloads before production of gas from pillows fractions of a second the moment of giving of a signal.
After road accident at which there was an operation of safety cushions the volume of interior of the car looks slightly smoke-filled. Actually it is a suspension of fine powder which usually pours covers of pillows in the put state. People with a disease of respiratory organs can feel a certain discomfort at inhalation of the products getting to air allocated by gas generators of pillows.
Control lamp of refusals of SRS
The control lamp of SRS is built in in an instrument guard of the car (see the Section Dashboard) and intended for the warning of the driver of the refusals revealed by system of self-diagnostics in system of an additional security system. On some modifications of the car operation of a control lamp testifies to possible malfunctions in blocks of side safety cushions or devices of an automatic emergency tension of seat belts.
At inclusion of ignition (the ignition key is turned in situation "II") To/L lights up for a short time, then at once dies away that confirms serviceability of functioning of all knots of system.
At any operation To/L at any other moment follows the owner of the car at the first opportunity to ask for the help experts HUNDRED Opel. The following is among such situations:
- To/L does not join at turn of the ignition key in situation "II";
- To/L continues to burn after implementation of start of the engine;
- To/L joined and burns in the constant or blinking mode during the movement of the car.
In the presence of the listed above signs of malfunctions the additional security system can refuse an accident case.
Negligence to signals of a control lamp of SRS can lead to the most serious consequences at refusal of safety cushions during accident!
Side safety cushions
On some models as an additional complete set the side safety cushions of the driver and forward passenger providing protection of the head of the driver and forward passenger at side blows can be established. Modules of side pillows are built in in external end faces of backs of front seats. The locations of both side pillows are marked with the inscriptions "AIRBAG". To/L SRS on an instrument guard of the car works at detection of malfunctions in chains of initiation of additional safety cushions.
At strong side blow sensors of the directed overloads fix excess by the arising loadings of some threshold value and give information signal on the control unit which develops the command for operations of a gas generator of the corresponding side safety cushion. At the same time, if the blow was come from the outside a passenger seat, the passenger side pillow will work even in the absence of the passenger on a front seat.
Epyura of operation of sensors of the directed overloads of side safety cushions
For ensuring the greatest efficiency of protection which is provided by safety cushions the driver and the passenger sitting on a front seat have to sit directly and to be fastened by seat belts.
Maintenance of the SRS elements
Pyrotechnic modules of safety cushions and devices of an automatic emergency tension of seat belts, practically do not need regular checks and maintenance. However the owner of the vehicle equipped as appropriate has to remember the following:
- After operation of safety cushions they are subject to obligatory replacement together with the system control unit. Do not try to dismantle the fulfilled pillows independently. These operations have to be carried out only in the conditions of a workshop of car service;
- If operation of a control lamp of SRS indicates existence of refusal in system, it is necessary to address immediately on the next HUNDRED Opel where full diagnostics and necessary recovery repair of system will be made. Otherwise safety cushions and emergency natyazhitel of belts can not work at accident and not execute the protective function;
- Do not open modules of gas generators and do not change an electrical wiring of systems of safety cushions and devices of an emergency automatic tension of seat belts, - such intervention can lead to involuntary operation of pillows and natyazhitel and to be the reason of traumatizing the performer or the people who are nearby;
- At the corresponding complete set you do not make replacement of front seats without receiving preliminary consultation on HUNDRED Opel. Inaccurate or incorrect performance of replacement or removal of covers can lead to refusal of operation of side safety cushions in case of accident.
Danger of poisoning with monoxide of carbon (SO)
Toxic monoxide of carbon (SO) is a part of the fulfilled gases of the engine extremely. At serviceable final system and the correct operation of the car, the fulfilled gases of the engine should not get to interior of the car. Try to check technical condition of system of production of the fulfilled gases and tightness of connections of its pipelines in the following cases:
- At the next replacement of motive oil when the car is installed on the elevator;
- At change of character of the noise background noticeable aurally published by final system;
- After accident in which the details located under the car bottom could be damaged.
Inhalation of monoxide of carbon causes loss of consciousness and can lead to death. Be careful to be in the closed, not aired room or to perform works during which you will be forced to breathe the air supporting CO in big concentration!
In the closed rooms with bad ventilation, for example, in a garage, concentration of CO can bystrouvelichivatsya to dangerous value. Therefore it is forbidden to leave the engine working at the closed garage gate. Even at open gate do not leave the engine working long time. At once after start of the engine it is necessary to leave a garage and to continue warming up of the engine on the street.
At the movement with an open door of a back the fulfilled gases of the engine can get to interior of the car and create a dangerous situation. If there is a situation when it is not possible to close a door, it is necessary to open completely all windows and to include air ventilation.