5.1. General information and precautionary measures

General information

Engine cooling system

All models of the cars considered in the present manual are equipped with the engine cooling system working with an excessive pressure with thermostatic management of circulation of working liquid. The water pump is fixed on the block of the engine and provides pumping of cooling liquid through a cooling path of the last. The stream of liquid washes regions of an arrangement of each of cylinders in the block then goes to a back part of the engine. The cooling channels laid in casting of the block and a head of cylinders provide intensive cooling of inlet and final ports, areas of installation of spark plugs and the directing plugs of final valves. The general scheme of functioning and components of the cooling system are submitted on accompanying illustrations.

Typical scheme of functioning of the cooling system of the internal combustion engine

1 — the Heater
2 — the Power unit
3 — the Thermostat
4 — the Water pump
5 — the Broad tank

6 — the Cover with the valve
7 — the Radiator
8 — Perepuskna a hose
9 — the Oil heater

Cooling system components on the example of the C14SE engine

1 — the Tank
2 — the Cover
3 — the Hose to a broad tank
4 — the Rubber support
5, 6 — a radiator Arm
7 — the Top hose of a radiator
8 — the Thermoswitch э / the fan motor
9 — the Radiator
10 — Э / the fan motor
11 — the fan Case

12 — the thermostat Case
13 — the Sealing ring
14 — the Thermostat (OZh temperature regulator)
15 — a heater Hose (only X12SZ and C14NZ engines)
16, 17 — a heater Hose
18 — the Connecting hose of the water pump with a pipe
19 — the Connecting hose of pipe OZh with a branch pipe of a butterfly valve
20 — Pipe OZh
21 — Nizhny Novgorod a radiator hose
22 — the Connecting hose of pipe OZh with the tank

Since engine launch the cooling system passes through three modes of functioning: at the first stage until temperature of cooling liquid rose above a certain value, it circulates on a small circle from a working contour of which the radiator is excluded. In process of further warming up of liquid the dish-shaped valve of the vozkozapolnenny thermostat which is switched on in the highway of system opens and the contour of circulation joins a radiator. Further, on reaching temperature of cooling liquid of the next control value, the thermosensitive sensor switch providing activation of the fan of the cooling system, forced which the additional air stream considerably increases efficiency of functioning of the heat exchanger of a radiator works.

The cooling system has a tight design and is densely closed by the cover of a radiator capable to maintain a certain excessive pressure that provides increase in a boiling point of cooling liquid and, respectively, efficiency of the heat sink through a radiator. At excess by internal pressure in system of some certain value, the sprung plate of the radiator of the safety valve which is built in in a cover rises over the saddle, providing an overflowing of excess of cooling liquid on a connecting (overflow) tube in a broad tank. In process of cooling of system liquid automatically comes back from a tank to a radiator.

Dolivaniye of cooling liquid in system is made through a mouth of a broad tank (see the Head Nastroyki and routine maintenance of the car) which at the same time acts also as the receiver accumulating in itself the excess of liquid which is forced out from a radiator.

In view of the listed features of a design, such cooling system received the name closed as in it any functional losses of a working body are excluded.

Systems of heating and ventilation of salon

The main components of system of heating of salon are the 4-speed electric fan and the heat exchanger placed in the box-shaped casing of a heater fixed under the Heat exchanger car dashboard by means of rubber hoses is connected to the engine cooling system. The control unit of functioning of the heater/conditioner of air is built in in the car dashboard. The cooling liquid warmed in the engine circulates via the heater heat exchanger, giving the to the air which is warmly filling a casing. At inclusion of heating of salon there is an opening of the lamellar gate therefore the internal volume of a casing of a heater connects to the volume of salon. At turning on of the fan the krylchatka of the last begins to banish the air given to salon via the heat exchanger, providing its intensive warming up.

Components of system of heating and ventilation of salon

1 — the Air filter
2 — the Case of the air filter
3 — the Case of the ventilating gate
4 — the Case of the central deflector
5 — the Panel of the control unit of a heater
6 — the Right air duct
7 — the Right deflector
8 — a deflector Lattice
9 — the air temperature regulator Handle
10 — the Handle of switching of the directions of air supply
11 — the Handle of the choice of the high-speed mode of the fan and heating of back glass

12 — the air circulation mode Switch
13 — the Switch of heating of a front seat
14 — the Air duct of an obduv of a wind vtekl
15 — the Control unit of a heater
16 — the air distributor Case
17 — the Heating element
18 — the Support of a heating element
19 — the air distributor Case
20 — the Left deflector
21 — the Left air duct

Air supply in salon is carried out via deflectors of front level (two central and two side), nozzles of foot wells and deflectors of an obduv of a windshield.

Instructions for use are in detail stated by elements of management of functioning of systems of heating, ventilation and conditioning in the Head Governing bodies and methods of operation at the beginning of the Management.

Air conditioning system

The condenser installed ahead of a radiator, the evaporator, close to the heater heat exchanger, fixed on the engine block the compressor, and filtering a receiver dehumidifier (accumulator) equipped with the reducing valve of high pressure enter into structure of air conditioning system installed in addition. All components are connected among themselves by refrigerator lines. The principle of functioning of air conditioning system is explained on an accompanying illustration.

Principle of functioning of the air conditioning system

1 — the Fan
2 — the Evaporator
3 — the Broad valve
4 — the Service socket of a low pressure contour
5 — the Service socket of a high-pressure contour
6 — the Damper of pulsations
7 — the Damper of pulsations
8 — pressure Sensor switch
9 — the Receiver dehumidifier
10 — the Additional fan
11 — the Condenser
12 — the Compressor

and — the Entrance stream of the cold air banished via the condenser heat exchanger
b — the Output stream of the heated-up air banished via the heat exchanger of the condenser and which selected heat from coolant
with — the air Stream created by the fan
d — the air Stream banished via the evaporator heat exchanger

A — the Gas phase of a high-pressure contour
B — the Liquid phase of a high-pressure contour
With — the Liquid phase of a low pressure contour
D — the Gas phase of a low pressure contour

The fan banishes the air coming to salon through the evaporator heat exchanger working in the mode, the return to the mode of functioning of a radiator. The coolant which is pumped over via the heat exchanger begins to boil and, evaporating, selects excess of heat at air. Temperature in salon at the same time decreases to the required comfortable value (at the choice of the operator). The compressor supports circulation of coolant in system, pumping over the warmed liquid via the condenser where it is cooled and comes back to the evaporator.

Instructions for use are in detail stated by elements of management of functioning of systems of heating, ventilation and conditioning in the Head Governing bodies and methods of operation at the beginning of the Management.

Precautionary measures

In order to avoid a scalding, do not uncover a broad tank at all and do not disconnect any components of a cooling path at the hot engine. If there is a need for removal of a cover of a broad tank before full cooling of cooling liquid, (though such situations should be avoided whenever possible), it is necessary to dump previously excessive pressure in system. Wrap up a tank cover a thick layer of rags, then slowly turn off before hissing emergence. When the hissing indicating release of steam stops, slowly turn off a cover up to the end. If at the last stage of an otvorachivaniye hissing is not resumed, can be uncovered. In the course of implementation of all procedure do not incline the person over a tank mouth, for protection of hands put on rubber gloves.

Try to avoid hit of antifreeze on open sites of skin and a paint and varnish covering of body panels. Casual splashes should be washed away immediately plentiful amount of clear water. Do not leave the merged from the engine or fresh cooling liquid stored in an open container at all. At once collect passage traces by rags. Remember that the sweetish smell of antifreeze is capable to draw attention of children and animals. Hit even of insignificant amount of cooling liquid in a digestive tract live to an organism is fraught with the most serious consequences, up to a lethal outcome.