7.4. Systems of a charge and start
General information and precautionary measures
System of a charge
The generator of alternating current which is built in it tension regulator, a control lamp of a charge, the rechargeable battery, a protective fusible insert and the electrical wiring connecting the listed components is among components of system of a charge. The system of a charge provides giving of electric food to system of ignition, lighting and alarm fixtures, the radio receiver and other consumers of the electric power. The generator is put in action by the belt drive from a pulley of a bent shaft and is installed in a forward part of the engine. Additional information on electric connections of components of system of a charge can be gathered from schemes of electric connections (see the Head Onboard electric equipment).
Electronic control unit (ECM, depending on the current values of input parameters (engine turns, speed of the movement of the car, temperature of cooling liquid, the number of the included consumers of the electric power and temperature of the soaked-up air), makes adjustment of size of tension developed by the generator. The main task of system is minimization of load of the engine.
Problem of the regulator of tension is restriction of tension developed by the generator in the set limits. The regulator prevents the overloads of contours and the other unpleasant phenomena connected with power surges.
The system of a charge does not need regular service. Nevertheless, it is necessary to check periodically a condition of a driving belt of the generator, battery, connecting электросм. Head Nastroyki and routine maintenance of the car).
The control lamp of a charge which is built in in an instrument guard quickly joins at turn of the ignition key in position of ON. Right after implementation of start of the engine the lamp has to go out. The refusal of a lamp of switching off testifies to malfunctions in system of a charge. On some models in an instrument guard the voltmeter allowing the driver to trace in time deviations of onboard tension from norm in addition is installed. At a release of indications of the voltmeter out of limits of admissible range it is necessary to make check of system of a charge.
The fusible insert represents the short piece of the wire placed in isolation which is built in in the main braid of an electrical wiring of a motive compartment. Total section of a vein of the conductor of an insert several times is less than at an electrical wiring of a chain in which it is included that guarantees reliable protection of the last against an overload.
When joining terminal connections of electric chains of the cars equipped with the generator of alternating current it is necessary to observe special precautionary measures:
- At connection of an electrical wiring of the battery do not allow polarity violation to the generator at all;
- Before applying arc welding at body repair disconnect an electrical wiring from plugs of the generator and the rechargeable battery;
- You do not make start of the engine at the charger connected to the battery at all;
- Always, before making battery charging from the external power supply, disconnect from it both wires (at first negative);
- Try not to allow hits of hands, hair and free parts of clothes in contact with the rotating driving belt of the generator during made at the working engine of checks;
- As the generator is connected directly to the battery, its overloads and short circuits are capable to cause ignition of an electrical wiring and to be a cause of the fire;
- Before starting steam cleaning of a motive compartment wrap the generator in a plastic bag which then should be fixed by rubber bandages reliably.
System of start
The system provides an engine provorachivaniye for the purpose of its start.
The main components of system are a starter with the traction relay installed on it, the rechargeable battery, the lock of ignition and a connecting electrical wiring.
Assembly of a starter with the traction relay is fixed from above on the power unit, near a transmission dome.
At turn of the ignition key in situation START power supply from the battery on a chain of management of start moves on the traction relay of a starter. The relay makes switching of power supply of the battery directly on a starter electric motor. The motor begins to rotate, at the same time turning for a gear wreath of a flywheel / a driving disk a bent shaft of the engine.
Functioning of a starter on the models equipped with RKPP becomes possible only at the squeezed-out coupling pedal. On models with AT an indispensable condition is transfer of the lever of the selector to situation "P" or "N".
When performing any works with components of system of start it is necessary to observe the following special precautionary measures:
- Remember that excessively long provorachivaniye of the engine a starter can lead to serious damages of an electric motor of the last as a result of an overheat. Never use a starter continuously further of 15 seconds then it should allow to cool down within one-two minutes;
- Do not forget that the starter is connected directly to the battery that at careless handling, as a result of overloads and short circuits, does probable the possibility of a dugoobrazovaniye fraught in turn by conducting ignition;
- Performing any works with components of system of start, without fail disconnect a negative wire from the battery, - remember that if the stereosystem established on the car is equipped with a security code before disconnecting the battery it is necessary to make sure of knowledge of the correct combination for input of the audio system in action!