6.1. Power supply system
General information and precautionary measures
The power supply system consists of the car of the fuel tank placed in it an electric gasoline pump, the fuel filter, injectors of injection, the regulator of pressure of fuel, assembly of the air cleaner, the throttle case installed in a back part, and also laid under the bottom of the car and connecting the fuel tank to the fuel highway of lines of giving and return of fuel. All models are equipped with the electronic system of injection of fuel functioning under control of ECM (see the Part System of injection of fuel of petrol engines).
The fuel evaporations accumulating in a tank and fuel pipes during the parking of the car accumulate in the adsorber filled with absorbent carbon from where then are removed to the inlet highway and are burned process of normal functioning of the engine.
Information on fuel consumption is output to the car dashboard.
Style of driving has significant effect on fuel consumption. Several councils for reasonable use of a pedal of an accelerator on the cars equipped with system of injection of fuel are given below:
- In any weather (even in a frost) begin the movement right after implementation of start of the engine;
- At a car stop for a while more on 40 with, you suppress the engine;
- Try to move always on the highest transfer;
- On distant trips try to support the constant speed of the movement. Avoid the movement at excessively high speeds. Drive the car circumspectly, avoid causeless braking;
- You transport the car excessive freight, in the absence of need remove the top luggage carrier from a roof;
- Regularly check pressure of a rating of tires, - try not to allow its excessive decrease.
The fuel system consists of the car of the fuel tank equipped with the built-in moisture separator of the warmed-up fuel filter, the fuel pump of high pressure (FPHP), nozzles and toplivoprovodnykhliniya connecting components of system installed in a back part
TNVD takes away fuel from a tank and banishes it via the fuel filter where there is a catching of foreign particles and moisture. Unspent excess fuel is used by the engine for greasing of internal components of the pump then comes back to the fuel tank.
The TNVD drive is carried out from a bent shaft. Working turns of the pump make exactly a half from turns of a bent shaft. The high pressure necessary for opening of nozzles and injection of fuel in форкамеры / directly in cylinders, is provided due to use of the radial plunger pump.
TNVD has electronic control thanks to what the engine completely meets constantly toughened international requirements for decrease in toxicity of an exhaust. Basic elements of a control system are the electronic module of engine management (ECM) which is built in pump assembly the TNVD control unit and a set of information sensors (see the Part System of injection of fuel of the diesel engine).
Four fuel nozzles inject the sprayed fuel in forkamer of cylinders. Optimization of process of combustion of mix is provided due to thin calibration of nozzles. Needles of nozzles are greased with the fuel accumulated in spring cameras, unclaimed surplus of fuel on separate lines comes back to TNVD.
For the purpose of increase in efficiency of return the X15DT engine is equipped with the turbocompressor providing redundancy of pressure in the inlet pipeline rather atmospheric that allows to increase a mass consumption of the air given to cylinders, - fuel supply also in proportion increases. The turbocompressor established between a final collector and a reception pipe of system of production of the fulfilled gases, working from pressure of the fulfilled gases takes air from the air cleaner, at the corresponding complete set banishes it via the heat exchanger of an intermediate cooler (intercooler) mounted at the left on a cooling system radiator and under a pressure gives to the inlet pipeline. A problem of the intercooler is cooling heated when tightening in the supercharger of the air given to the engine. As the cooled air has big density, decrease in its temperature allows to lift efficiency of return of the engine even more.
Excessive increase in pressure in the inlet pipeline is prevented due to use of the special safety valve providing removal of the fulfilled gases from a turbocompressor by means of pressure of the actuation mechanism, sensitive to change. Operation of the valve happens at the command of ECM. The sensor switch, sensitive to change of pressure, provides operation of the control lamp which is built in in an instrument guard warning the driver about excess of admissible pressure of pressurization.
Lubricant of a turbocompressor is produced by the motive oil arriving on a special tube from the block of cylinders, - the turbine shaft literally "floats" in oil, - from the supercharger oil of the returnable line comes back to the case pallet. The turbocompressor is equipped with the built-in safety valve and a vacuum diaphragm providing adjustment of pressure of pressurization in the inlet pipeline. Internal components of a turbocompressor rotate with a high speed and are very sensitive to quality of oil. Hit on the rotating shovels of the turbine of foreign particles can have the most serious consequences. In view of the compressor told before removal it is necessary to clear carefully its external surfaces, and also surfaces of the knots located in the neighbourhood. Put the removed components in densely closed container. At once stick all openings in the compressor with an adhesive tape, for rubbing of details use only неворсящуюся rags.
Do not start the turbocharged engine at the removed inlet air duct at all, - depression depth on an entrance of the compressor can increase in steps that increases risk of absorption in the turbine of foreign objects and their subsequent ejection with high speed!
The fuel system of diesel engines is extremely reliable. On condition of use of pure fuel and a regularity of performing procedures of service it has to function regularly before the termination of service life of the car. At a high run the TNVD internal components and nozzles can wear out and demand carrying out recovery repair, - In view of complexity of a design of components performance of repair should be charged to specialists of car service.
Security measures and rules of respect for purity during the work with fuel system
Do not approach the venue of works with naked flame or the lit cigarette. Always you keep in readiness the fire extinguisher.
Fuel vapors are poisonous, - monitor ensuring normal ventilation of a workplace.
The fuel system is under pressure. When opening system fuel can escape from it under pressure, - before an otpuskaniye of nipple sockets wrap them in rags. Use goggles.
During the work with components of a power supply system of the diesel engine observe special precautionary measures. In a special measure this statement belongs to procedures of service of nozzles. Remember that fuel pressure at the exit makes about 1100 atmospheres of nozzles, - do not substitute under a stream of a hand and other parts of a body.
Collars of tape and tightening type are applied to fastening of hose connections. After a detachment of hoses tightening collars should be replaced tape or worm. Fixing of locks of some collars demands use of special devices, - consult with experts branded HUNDRED Opel.
Before undocking of nipple sockets carefully wipe them outside in order to avoid hit of dirt in a path.
Stack the removed components on a pure lining and turn in polyethylene or paper, - avoid application for rubbing and a reversing of components ворсящейся rags.
If repair demands time, track that all open openings in knots and components of a power supply system were carefully muffled.
Establish into place only pure details. Take out spare parts from packing only just before installation. Do not apply details which were stored unpacked (for example, in a toolbox).
Avoid use of compressed air at an open fuel path. Whenever possible try not to move the car.
Do not apply the sealants containing silicone. The particles of silicone which got to the engine do not burn down and can be the reason of damage a lambda probe.
Security measures at removal of the fuel tank
Before removal of a tank merge from it fuel or pump out it the pump which is specially provided for this purpose.
The fuel tank is removed from the lower party of the car. Before an otpuskaniye of assembly tapes, prop up a tank from below a cart jack, - lay wooden whetstone between a tank and a head of a jack.
The empty tank is explosive and before utilization has to be cut on a part, - try not to allow when cutting a tank of sparking. It will be most correct to hand over a tank in special place of acceptance.
After installation of a tank start the engine and check tightness of all connections.